Thomas County is located east of Hooker County and south of Cherry County in the state’s western region. Its largest town and county seat is Thedford, population 180. Thedford is located in the middle of the county about 65 miles north of North Platte.

The county is named after Civil War General George H. Thomas and lies in the Nebraska Sandhills. The Nebraska National Forest can be found just outside of Thedford between the Loup and Dismal Rivers.